Dan Watson


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It appears that my post on 1964 was popular, so let’s dig into the Collier’s Yearbook again, and as Joan would say, “Gentlemen, shall we begin 1965?”

1/4/65 – Speaking before a joint session of the 89th Congress nine hours after the opening of its first session, President Johnson gave his State of the Union message, in which he outlined the building of the “Great Society.”  T. S. Eliot, 76, American-born British poet and critic who won the 1948 Nobel Prize in literature, died in London.

1/11/65 – Emerson Foote, head of the National Interagency on Smoking and Health, predicted that 125,000 Americans would die in 1965 from the effects of cigarette smoking, despite the drop in per capita rate of consumption.

1/15/65 – A federal grand jury indicted 18 persons in connection with the June 1964 slaying of three civil rights workers in Mississippi; all but one had previously been arrested–and then released–in the same case.

1/20/65 – Thousands of spectators gathered at the Capitol in near-freezing temperatures to watch Lyndon B. Johnson being sworn in for his first full term as president and to hear his Inaugural Address, with its theme of justice, liberty, and unity.

1/24/65 – Sir Winston Churchill, 90, Britain’s World War II prime minister, died following a stroke.

1/26/65 – Iran’s Premier Hassan Ali Mansour, 41, died as a result of two shots fired by an assassin on January 21.

2/3/65 – The arrest of over 1,000 Negro schoolchildren in Selma, Ala., and in the nearby town of Marion brought to over 2,600 the number of arrests in the Selma area since the start of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s nonviolent Negro voter registration drive in Dallas County.

2/6/65 – In Atlanta, Ga., segregationist Lester G. Maddox ended months of litigation by reluctantly agreeing to comply with a federal court order to admit Negroes to his cafeteria.

2/10/65 – In Selma, Ala., sheriff James G. Clark and a group of deputies carrying nightsticks and electric cattle prods led 165 youthful Negro demonstrators on a 2.3-mile forced march into the Dallas County countryside.

2/19/65 – A proposed constitutional amendment providing for procedures in the event of presidential disability was unanimously approved by the U.S. Senate.  Under the amendment, a vice-president who had succeeded to the presidency could nominate a new vice-president, subject to congressional confirmation.

2/21/65 – Malcolm X, 39-year-old leader of the militant Black Nationalist movement, was shot to death while addressing a rally of his followers in New York City.

3/5/65 – In Indianola, Miss., a major stronghold of segregation, a freedom school and library containing 2,000 volumes burned to the ground.

3/7/65 – More than 60 Negroes were injured when Alabama state troopers and a handful of volunteers from the Dallas County sheriff’s office, authorized by Governor George Wallace to prevent a protest march from Selma to Montgomery, broke up a Negro demonstration with nightsticks, whips, and tear gas.

3/9/65 – Following a federal court order banning a protest march from Selma to Montgomery, 1,500 Negro and white civil rights marchers, led by the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., were peaceably halted by Alabama state troopers one mile outside of Selma.  Thousands of Negroes and whites in major cities across the U.S. demonstrated to show sympathy for the twice-attempted voter registration march.

3/10/65 – President Johnson submitted to Congress a $10 million plan to establish a National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities which would provide direct federal aid to creative artists for the first time since the New Deal of the 1930’s.

3/11/65 – The Rev. James J. Reeb, 38-year-old white minister from Boston who was one of three clergymen beaten by whites in Selma, Ala., after participating in a civil rights march on March 9, died in Birmingham.

3/13/65 – In a three-hour meeting with Alabama Governor George Wallace, President Johnson warned that police brutality in Selma “must not be repeated” and urged him to assure that the right to vote and to demonstrate peacefully would be maintained.

3/15/65 – In a televised appearance before a joint evening session of Congress, President Johnson urged speedy approval of a new voting rights bill designed to remove discriminatory barriers against citizen trying to register and vote in any federal, state, or local election.  Referring to anti-Negro discrimination as a national problem, the president pledged that “we shall overcome” this “crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice.”

3/17/65 – In Montgomery, Ala., a federal district judge authorized Negroes to hold a 50-mile civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, ordering Governor Wallace and other Alabama officials to refrain from “harassing or threatening” the protest marchers and to provide full police protection from hostile whites.

3/21/65 – The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., led 3,200 Negroes and whites on the first lap of a civil rights march from Selma to the Alabama state capital of Montgomery.

3/25/65 – The 54-mile march that began on March 21 in Selma, Ala., ended at the state capitol in Montgomery, where the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., exhorted a jubilant crowd of 25,000 Negroes and whites to continue the struggle for racial justice.  After the march, Mrs. Viola Gregg Liuzzo, a white civil rights worker from Detroit, was shot to death on the road between Montgomery and Selma.

3/26/65 – In Birmingham, Ala., the FBI arrested four members of the Ku Klux Klan in connection with the death of Mrs. Viola Liuzzo on March 25.

3/30/65 – At President Johnson’s suggestion, the House Committee on Un-American Activities voted to conduct a full investigation on the Ku Klux Klan.

3/31/65 – In Rome, pamphlets containing Holy Week prayers revised by Pope Paul VI to eliminate degrading references to Jews and atheists were put on sale in religious bookstores.

4/2/65 – The first appointment of Negroes to three statewide committees administering federal farm programs in Arkansas, Mississippi, and Maryland was announced by Secretary of Agriculture Orville L. Freeman.  The appointments followed the disclosure by the U.S. Civil Rights Commission of widespread discrimination against Negro farmers in the administration of such federal programs, especially in certain southern states.

4/5/65 – The U.S. Supreme Court held that the right of an accused person to be confronted with the witnesses against him, as stated in the Sixth Amendment, applied to state criminal proceedings.

4/7/65 – In a nationwide broadcast, President Johnson announced U.S. readiness to participate in unconditional diplomatic talks on ending the war in Vietnam;

4/15/65 – West Germany paid Israel $75 million in cash and goods, the last annual installment of a 14-year-old $860 million reparations agreement.

4/17/65 – In Washington, D.C., more than 15,000 persons, mostly students, picketed the White House in protest against the fighting in Vietnam.

4/21/65 – U.S. Vice-President Hubert Humphrey, along with other notables, officiated at the formal ceremony opening the second and final season of the New York World’s Fair.

4/27/65 – Edward R. Murrow, former chief of the United States Information Agency and world-famous radio-television broadcaster, died at the age of 57.

5/2/65 – Early Bird, the first commercial satellite over the Atlantic, became the first link in a worldwide live television system, relaying to North American and European viewers a program that included a simultaneous intercontinental performance of “Auld Lang Syne.”

5/4/65 – In the remains of an Indian settlement near Snaketown, Ariz., an expedition from the University of Arizona unearthed a remarkably modern irrigation system, built about 1,900 years ago.

5/7/65 – In Alabama the trial of Ku Klux Klansman Collie LeRoy Wilkins, Jr., for the murder of Mrs. Viola Liuzzo, a 39-year-old white civil rights worker from Detroit, was declared a mistrial when the jury was deadlocked 10-2 for a conviction on a charge of first-degree manslaughter.

5/8/65 – The 20th anniversary of V-E Day was celebrated in elaborate military ceremonies in France and in a transatlantic televised exchange between Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower in the U.S. and Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery in London via Early Bird satellite.

5/11/65 – By a vote of 49-45, the U.S. Senate defeated a proposal to include in the voting rights bill an amendment banning poll taxes in state elections.

5/13/65 – West Germany and Israel announced the establishment of full diplomatic relations between the two nations; as a result several Arab states broke off relations with West Germany.

5/20/65 – The Federal Communications Commission granted a Mississippi broadcasting company a one-year, probationary renewal of its license, ordering that it end racial discrimination in programming.

5/25/65 – In the first minute of the first round of the heavyweight championship fight in Lewiston, Me., 23-year-old Cassius Clay retained his title with a short right that knocked out challenger Sonny Liston.

5/29/65 – In a repudiation of the American Medical Association’s stand on government-aided medical care, the New York Academy of Medicine declared that health care should be “based on health need alone, not on a test of ability to pay.”

5/30/65 – Vivian Malone became the first Negro graduate of the 134-year-old University of Alabama.

6/1/65 – New York’s Governor Nelson Rockefeller signed a bill abolishing capital punishment for almost all crimes hitherto punishable by death in New York State.

6/10/65 – New York City’s thrice-elected mayor Robert Wagner announced that he would not run for a fourth term.

(Daaaamn 1965 was eventful.  I’m getting tired, so this will just be part one.  Part two can come later in the season.)


Written by Dan

August 20, 2010 at 6:08 am

Posted in History

Tagged with , ,

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  1. […] a comment » Continued from my timeline of the first half of 1965, from the Collier’s […]

    1965, Part 2 « Dan Watson

    September 26, 2010 at 11:49 pm

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